Secretariat-Protocol: 2825340300, info@apokoronas.gov.gr

Municipal Unit of Armeni

Presentation of the settlements of the Municipal Unit of Armeni in the context of the “Getting to know the villages of Apokoronas” initiative:

The village of Armeni is located at an altitude of 50 meters to the east of the Kiliaris river valley. Like the homonymous villages of Rethimno and Sitia, the village was named after the Armenian soldiers who chose to settle there after the reconquest of Crete by Nikephoros Phokas in 961 AD.

However, in the village there are traces of inhabitants from the early Christian era. An early Christian basilica was found around the church of Panagia, while in excavations at the church of Agios Ioannis Τheologos, traces of an older basilica were found, the mosaic of which dates back to the 16th century. The village was mentioned by Barozzi in 1577 as Armenus, a name that was confirmed by Castrofilaca in 1583 and by Basilicata in 1630.

Although the village is flat and therefore vulnerable to attacks, it played an important role in the mobilization of the Christians of Crete against the Ottomans in the 19th century. During the revolution of 1821, Armeni was designated as the seat of the Provisional Revolutionary Assembly, while in May 1822 Christian representatives from all the provinces of the island gathered here and voted for the “Provisional Government of Crete“, a quasi-constitution based on that which was voted by the First National Assembly of Epidaurus in January 1822 and described the responsibilities of the new administrative authorities that would succeed the corresponding Ottoman ones. In memory of this event, the village was renamed Eleftheroupoli.

During the siege of Vamos, in May 1896, the Post-political Committee convened an assembly in the village, while the first assembly of the 1897 revolution took place there on June 26, which was moved to Archanes four days later. During the autonomy (1898-1913) the village prospered and developed, while in the 30s the three-aisled church of Agios Nikolaos was built, one of the last works of local craftsmen with academic influences. In addition to its notable churches, the village also has several springs that feed the Xide or Xidas river that flows into Kalives, while at its northern entrance there is an old water mill, next to which a “rasofabrica” operated, i.e. a textile processing industry.

Regarding its administrative affiliation, the village was chosen as the seat of the Municipality of Armeni in 1881, but it was abolished in 1915. Since then and until the reconstitution of the Municipality in 1999, the village was an independent community of the same name, while since 2010 it has been a Municipal District of the same name of the Municipal Unit of Armeni.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Kalives is a seaside settlement on the southern coast of the outer gulf of Souda, which was originally built on the banks of the Xidas River, but in recent decades has extended westwards to the Kiliaris River. According to one theory, the village got its name from the landing of Arabs in the area who built huts and settled there in 828 A.D. Another theory is that the name came from the huts that farmers built on their properties there, so that they could stay seasonally and not have to return to their village. In any case, this settlement was not the first in the area, as Strabo mentions that in antiquity the ancient city of Kissamos was there, which was the port of Aptera. He also places the ancient city of Tanos between Kalives and Almirida, probably in Kera bay or on Kasteli hill, where the Castel Αpicorno or Bicorna was built during the Venetian rule, which was the seat of the castellany (i.e. province) of Apokoronas. The village was mentioned as Calives by Barozzi in 1577, Callives by Castrofilaca in 1583 and Calives by Basilicata in 1630.

Given that Kalives has a large and protected coast near the most mountainous and “tumultuous” provinces of Crete (Apokoronas and Sfakia), during the Turkish occupation, Ottoman troops landed there several times. The first time was in 1770, followed by others in 1822, 1878 and 1896, until the province was cleared after the Battle of Almirida (30 June – 4 July 1896). At the eastern end of the settlement, north of Castel Apicorno, there is a small port that serves fishing and tour boats, while to the west of it there are beaches and taverns all the way to Kiani Akti. At the square of Kalives, near the church of Agia Paraskevi, a watermill is preserved that is depicted on several Venetian maps and was used for grinding grain until the beginning of the 20th century when it was modified to accommodate the first power-generating pair in the prefecture, which provided electricity for Kalives and the Izzeddin fortress in 1928, six months before Chania got electricity. In the last decades of the 20th century, Kalives began to develop as a tourist destination, benefiting from the beautiful and long beaches nearby, but also from the proximity to the “highway”, as the locals euphemistically call the Northern Road Axis of Crete.

Administratively, the village was referred to as Kalyvais of the Municipality of Armeni in 1881 and 1900, the seat of the homonymous rural municipality in 1920 and an independent community in 1928. In 1999 Kalives became the seat of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni, which became a Municipal Unit of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Kares is located at an altitude of 521 meters at the foot of the White Mountains and is the westernmost settlement of the Municipality of Apokoronas. There are several theories as to the origin of the name of the village, but none has been verified. According to one of them, the village took its name from Cares, an ancient Dorian ethnic group, members of which settled here sometime in early antiquity. According to another theory, the name of the village is connected to the ancient Greek word “kara”, which means head, while according to another theory, it came from a corruption of the word “karydies” (walnut trees), as there are many in the area.

The village was not mentioned in documents of the Venetian occupation, but it was mentioned in the Egyptian census of 1834, when it had 30 Christian families and one Muslim family. Kares consists of three sub-districts, Vivlidiana, Katalimata and Koules which are connected by a winding road that passes over a bridge, on the north side of which there is an open space covered with plane trees, where revolutionary assemblies were held in 1821 and 1866. The name Koules testifies that an Ottoman tower was built there probably after the revolution of 1866-1869, while an important battle took place in Kares on 8 and 9 November 1895, when local Christians successfully confronted a significantly superior Ottoman force at the beginning of the Post-Political Revolution.

Due to its mountainous surroundings, the village was a refuge for guerrilla groups during the German occupation (1941-1945), but despite repeated patrols and checks, the Germans were unable to locate the rebels and limit their activity. From Kares a path leads higher to the mountain, where there are many huts and wells. At a distance of 8 kilometers southwest of the village is the area of Gournes (altitude 1,100 meters), where local livestock farmers have built stone huts that they use as accommodation and cheese dairies. Also, the stone-built church of the Apostles Peter and Paul, where a festival is held every year on 28 June, is located there.

Administratively, the village was referred to as Kares of the Municipality of Fre in 1881 and 1900, Karres of the rural municipality of Ramni in 1920 and 1928, and again as Kares in 1951, when it became an independent community. Kares became part of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni in 1999, which became a Municipal Unit of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Kiriakoselia is located at an altitude of 360 meters at the western end of the Kiliaris valley, north of Ramni and southwest of Chiliomoudou. The location is hilly and inaccessible, and for this reason, the Byzantine Skordilis family built a fortress there in order to control the mountain passes between the provinces of Kydonia and Apokoronas. It is said that the name of the settlement is related to the word sela (saddle), as the surface of the hill resembles this shape, while according to another theory, it is connected to the word seli, which in Crete is used as a synonym for the neck between two mountains. When the Genoese Enrico Pescatore occupied Crete in 1205, the fortress of Kiriakoselia (renamed Rocca di San Nicoló) was one of the fifteen fortresses he chose to repair or equip, but this did not prevent its capture by the Scordilis and Melissenos families, who captured it during the revolt of the two Sybarites in 1217 and kept it under their control until 1236, when it was handed over to the Venetians by treaty.

Inside the area of the former fortress, the church of Agia Paraskevi is preserved, while at the western end of the castle there is a tower and a water tank. Below the fortifications on the northern side of the rock is the church of Agios Mamas, while lower in the valley (northeast of the village) is the church of Agios Nikolaos, one of the most beautiful and well-preserved Byzantine churches in Crete. The church was built in the 11th century as a single-bay vaulted church, but was converted into a cruciform inscribed with a dome in the 13th century, at which time it was decorated with exquisite frescoes, many of which are still in good condition. It is said to have been built by a certain Kiriakos Sellas, from whom the name of the village probably comes. The village was mentioned by Paul Faure in 1629 as Ciriacosell(ia), but it was not mentioned by Basilicata a year later. It was also mentioned in the chronicle of Antonio Trivan in 1644 as Ciriacoseglia and in the Egyptian census of 1834 as Kyriacusália, when it had a purely Christian population. According to the Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Gerola, at the beginning of the 20th century, the two gates of the fortress were preserved, which do not exist today, but the fortified enclosure is visible.

Administratively, the village was listed as Kiriakosellia of the Municipality of Fre in 1881 and 1900, as Kiriakoselia of the rural Municipality of Ramni in 1920 and part of the community of Ramni after 1928. In 1999 Kiriakoselia became part of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni, which became the Municipal Unit of Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Macheri is located at an altitude of 110 meters in the southern part of the valley of Kiliaris, near the point where the heights of Vamos meet the foothills of the White Mountains, approximately in the middle of the Municipal Unit of Armeni. The origin of the village name is not known, but the village was mentioned as Maghierus by Barozzi in 1577 and as Machierus by Castrofilaca (1583) and Basilicata (1630).

Due to the location of the village in the middle of a large rock, its view from the opposite side of the valley (from the east) is impressive, while the village also has an excellent view towards the heights of Nio Chorio and the valley of Kiliaris. Many houses in the settlement were built in the 18th or 19th century and are of particular interest in terms of their architecture, which is greatly influenced by the late Venetian period. Many of them have carved buttresses at their corners and carved stone door and window frames, and their stonework is often covered with impressive coatings. In 1998, in recognition of the special architectural character of the village, the Greek Parliament declared the old part of the settlement of Macheri a historical preserved monument (Government Gazette 1220/B/30-11-1998).

A stone theater with a capacity of 500 seats has been built to the east of the central square of the village, where several events are held in the summer. To the south of the theater and the square is the main church of the village, Ipapanti, while on the rock above the village there is a church dedicated to Agios Ioannis, which visitors can reach through a narrow uphill path that starts south of the square. In the ravine south of the village is the church of Agios Antonios, while on a slope west of the village, near the road to Ramni, there is an old aqueduct which used to supply the village with water.

Administratively, Macheri was listed as part of the Municipality of Armeni in 1881 and 1900, an independent community in 1920 and part of the community of Stilos from 1925 to 1948, when the community of Macheri was reconstituted. Macheri became part of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni in 1997 and part of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Nio Chorio is located at an altitude of 52 meters in the southern part of the Kiliaris valley, near the point where the heights of Vamos meet the foothills of the White Mountains, above the villages of Provarma and Macheri. Although its name indicates that it is a relatively “new” village, it was mentioned in the census of Barozzi in 1577 as Neoghorio Psichro (Psichro is the old name of Apokoronas), that of Castrofilaca in 1583 as Neo Corio and that of Basilicata in 1630 as Neo Choriò. After the conquest of Crete by the Ottomans, Nio Chorio became the headquarters of the janissaries (yeniçeri), as thanks to its strategic position they could control a large part of the valley of Kiliaris, but also the passages to the south and the rest of Apokoronas. After the dissolution of the order by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826, the village became a vakif, i.e. the property of a charitable foundation of a mosque in the city of Chania. According to the Egyptian census of 1834, 50 Christian and 3 Muslim families lived in Nio Chorio.

In the center of the village is the church of the Apostle Thomas, in front of which there is a monument to the locals fallen in the national battles, while next to it there is a well and an old plane tree. In the upper neighborhood, there is an interesting feudal residence complex which was built during the late Venetian period, but has additions from the Turkish period as well. This complex is known as the “houses of the Sarides” and consists of a mansion, an olive press (factory), stables and warehouses. Another notable monument of the village is koules, an Ottoman tower built in the late 1860s on a hill to the south of the village, in order for the Ottomans to consolidate their control over the area. At a short distance from Koules there was “Kouledaki”, a second fortified building where the commander of the guard is said to have lived, while between the two there was a large cistern, which has survived to this day with some interventions.

Administratively, Nio Chorio was mentioned as part of the Municipality of Armeni in 1881 along with the villages of Katsoufriana and Manoudiana, part of the same municipality in 1900, seat of the homonymous rural municipality in 1920, and an independent community after 1925, which again became part of the Municipality of Armeni in 1997, until it became a Municipal Unit of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Provarma is located at an altitude of 93 meters on the western side of the valley of Kiliaris, at a short distance from Stilos. The toponym comes from the location of the settlement on a hill that offers a view of the wider area. The settlement has developed along and to the east of the road that connects Stilos to Samonas, at a short distance from the intersection to Macheri and Nio Chorio. The village was not mentioned in the Venetian censuses, but it was mentioned in the Egyptian census of 1834, according to which it was inhabited by 16 Christian and 2 Muslim families.

On 15 May 1841, the first battle of the revolution of 1841 took place in Provarma, while from this village came the priest Konstantinos Dounis, known as Dounopapas, who participated in Hatzi Osman Pasha’s campaign against the janissaries in 1812, was initiated into the Filiki Eteria and fought in the revolution of 1821, but was forced to surrender and was hanged by the Armenians in 1827. One of his children was Ioannis Anagnostis Dounis who wrote the Battles of Crete (Αγώνες της Κρήτης), a collection of poems chronicling the main events of the Cretan revolutions from 1841 to 1878, while his grandson was Konstantinos Dounakis, who wrote the History of the Province of Apokoronas (Ιστορία της Επαρχίας Αποκορώνου), published in 1967. Less well known but equally important are Saridostamatis (Stamatis Saridakis), who fought alongside Sifakas and Dounopapas, but also the priest Gavriil Manioudakis, who toured the villages of the province after 1893 and initiated members into the brotherhood that evolved into the Post-Political Committee and led the struggle during the Post-Political revolution (1895-1896).

In the village there are two churches, one near the center of the settlement, dedicated to Agia Triada, and one at its northern end, dedicated to Agios Georgios. The former primary school of the village was renovated after 2006 and was inaugurated in 2015 as a House of Culture, Knowledge and Creation, where related activities are occasionally held.

Administratively, Provarma was listed as part of the Municipality of Armeni in 1881 and 1900, seat of the homonymous rural municipality in 1920 and part of the community of Stilos after 1925. In 1997 it became part of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni, which became a Municipal Unit of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Ramni is located at an altitude of 390 meters at the southwestern end of the Kiliaris valley, at the foot of the White Mountains. According to the Austrian traveler Franz Sieber, the name of the village is related to the ancient city of Ramnos or Ramnous, but other travelers and historians place this city on the west coast of Crete, either on the Tigani peninsula, or further south, near Chrisoskalitissa. Remains of a carved Greco-Roman circular tomb have been found between the villages of Ramni and Paidochori, but this is not necessarily related to any large settlement of the time. Unlike the neighboring villages that “look” towards the valley of Koiliaris, Ramni is built to  “look” towards the White Mountains and the passages to Kiriakoselia and Kares.

The village was not mentioned in the Venetian censuses of the 16th century, but it was mentioned by Antonio Trivan in 1645 as Ramni. After the conquest of Apokoronas by the Ottomans, Ramni became a vakif village, i.e. the property of a charitable foundation connected to a mosque in one of the three major cities of the island. The village was not mentioned in the Egyptian census of 1834, but it was mentioned in Kritika written by Michael Hourmouzis in 1842.

The central church of the village is Agios Dimitrios, while a second church is located on the slope opposite the village, dedicated to Christ. In the center of the village, next to Agios Dimitrios, there is a modest monument dedicated to Dimitris Michelogiannis, who was born here in 1890, studied at the Law School of the University of Athens, enlisted as a volunteer in the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) and fought in Asia Minor (1919-1922) and the Resistance (1941-1945). His brother, Georgios Michelogiannis, a humanitarian doctor who rushed to help even the poorest people in the villages of Apokoronas, was also known in the province.

Administratively, Ramni was mentioned as part of the Municipality of Fre in 1881 and 1900, seat of the homonymous rural municipality in 1920 and an independent community after 1925, which included the settlements of Kares, Kiriakoselia, Melidoni and Chiliomoudou. Melidoni was separated from this community in 1925 and Kares in 1949, while in 1997 Ramni became part of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni, which became a Municipal Unit of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Samonas is located at an altitude of 383 meters at the eastern end of the plateau of Keramia, at the western end of the Kiliaris valley. Paul Faure argued that the name came from the word “samos” or “sami”, which describes a high and precipitous location. According to another theory, the name of the village is related to Samonas of mythology, son of Hermes and Rini, while a third one connects the village to Agios Samonas, to whom the right aisle of the church of Agios Efstathios, at the highest point of the village, was dedicated. Agios Samonas is celebrated on 15 November, when a big festival is traditionally held in the village.

At Kilintra, just outside the village, traces of settlement from the Late Minoan period, tools and ceramics were found. The strategic position of the hill, from where one has a panoramic view of a large part of Apokoronas, testifies that there was an acropolis of the same era. The village seems to have existed during the second Byzantine period, while it was mentioned by Castrofilaca in 1583 as Samona and by Basilicata in 1630 as Samonà. The village was also mentioned in the Egyptian census of 1834, when it was inhabited by 7 Christian families.

In modern history, the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) bombed Samonas on 8 May 1944, and the following day the village was attacked by the regular German army (Wehrmacht) that burned the village to the ground in retaliation for guerrilla activity in the area. Although after the departure of the Germans only ashes and debris remained, the few brave inhabitants who remained rebuilt the village.

In Samonas there is another church dedicated to Agios Ioannis Theologos, while another point of interest is the century-old olive tree of Samonas, which has been declared “monumental” by the Association of Olive-Growing Municipalities of Crete, due to the large dimensions of its trunk and crown. This olive tree is located in Lakkos and is of the mastoid variety (which the locals call “tsοunati”). At a height of one meter from the ground the trunk of the tree has a maximum diameter of 5,25 meters and a perimeter of 12,90, while at its base it has a maximum diameter of 6,70 meters and a perimeter of 20 meters. To the south of the village, a small cave was discovered in 1994, which attracts the interest of speleologists and climbers.

Administratively, Samonas was listed as part of the Municipality of Armeni in 1881 and 1900, part of the rural municipality of Provarma in 1920 and of the community of Stilos after 1925. In 1997 Samonas became part of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni, which became a Municipal Unit of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Stilos is located at an altitude of 63 meters to the west of the valley of Kiliaris. At Azogire in the north-east of the village there are remains of a settlement that was abandoned during the Late Minoan period (1560-1050 BC), where, among other things, a pottery workshop and a vaulted tomb were found. It is not clear whether the area was continuously inhabited, but Stilos was an important settlement during the Byzantine period, as evidenced by its old and interesting churches. In the north-east of the village is the cruciform church of Panagia Zerviotissa built in the 10th century, while at the northern entrance of the village is a two-aisled church dedicated to Agios Ioannis Theologos and Agios Nikolaos, inside which the remains of an older church of the 7th or 8th century were found.

In 1267 Stilos was recognized as a makeshift settlement of the Monastery of Agios Ioannis of Patmos, while in 1401 the Latin bishop of Kalamonos Anthonio de Ballancinis stated that Stιlos “lies in the parts of his diocese“, which suggests that Apokoronas was ecclesiastically subordinated to Rethymno and not in Kydonia, with which it was later connected. The village was mentioned by Barozzi in 1577 as Stillio, by Castrofilaca in 1583 as Stillo and by Basilicata in 1630 as Stilo. Due to its lowland location, the village was repeatedly a site for the settlement of Ottoman troops, especially during the revolutions of 1821, 1866 and 1889, when the “General Assembly of Cretans” was convened in Stilos, whose members elected Antonis Sifakas as president.

In modern history, in and around Stilos took place one of the last skirmishes of the Battle of Crete on 28 May 1941, when Germans of the 85th Mountain Regiment attacked the men of the 5th New Zealand Brigade defending the village. The battle was fierce and lasted for a few hours, until the Allied divisions decided to collapse towards Nio Chorio and Agioi Pantes (Bambali).

To the north-west of Stilos, near the point where the impressive gorge of Diktamos ends, is the small settlement of Faragi. Despite its impressive beauty and its proximity to historical monuments such as ancient Aptera and Izzeddin, the gorge of Diktamos is not particularly well known, and neither is the small lake that is formed here during the winter months. To the east of the settlement, near the main road to Kalives, is the water mill of Stilos, while further north, at Platanakia, there is a small picturesque church dedicated to Agios Ioannis Rigologos.

Administratively, Stilos was mentioned as part of the Municipality of Armeni in 1881 and 1900, seat of the homonymous rural municipality in 1920 and an independent community after 1925, which also included the settlements of Provarma and Samonas. In 1997 Stilos became part of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni, which became a Municipal Unit of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Tsivaras is located at an altitude of 102 meters southeast of Kalives, on the main road to Vamos. It has been argued that its name comes from Turkish, where the word civar means “surroundings”, but the existence of the village was already recorded during the Venetian occupation. The village was mentioned by Barozzi in 1577 as Civara, by Castrofilaca in 1583 as Zivara and by Basilicata in 1630 as Civara, while it was mentioned in the Egyptian census of 1834 as Tsivarás, when it was inhabited by 16 Christian and 4 Muslim families.

Due to its fortified position on a hill between two of the largest villages in the province, Tsivaras has repeatedly been the scene of conflict between the Ottoman army and rebels, and is said to have been burned down seven times. On 17 June 1821, Manousos Protopapadakis with several inhabitants of Apokoronas fought a battle near the village of Sivara or Tsivara. The rebels managed to prevail over the men of Ali Softa and Tsourouni. According to Kritovoulidis, “The damage was really small, but that victory had a moral effect on both the warring parties”.

Another important conflict took place on 11 June 1878, when Salih Pasha landed in Kalives with a force of 4,000 men and attacked the villages of Tsivaras, Armeni and Nio Chorio. According to a poem by Anagnοstis Dounis, “the Turks desolated all the villages they entered, burned houses and took everything they found. In Nio Chorio, Katsoufriana, Tsivaras and Armeni, they slaughtered young people and children and the elderly.” Rebels rushed to the area under the Kefalian chieftain Mathios Milonogiannis, who inflicted significant losses on the attackers and forced them to retreat to Kalives and Kalami.

Tsivaras was also a battlefield during the Post-Political Revolution, as the Ottoman army repeatedly attacked it in May 1896, with the aim of breaking the siege of Vamos by the rebels. After several attempts, a strong force under Abdullah Pasha managed to breach the site on 18 May, reaching as far as Vamos and encouraging its garrison to make an exit. During their retreat, the Ottoman forces looted Tsivaras and set it on fire, as they did to Vamos and Douliana.

In the center of the village there is a church dedicated to Agia Triada, while at its northern end is the old school, which was built in 1900 at Archimandrite Germanos Apostolakis’ expense and where many of the events of the active cultural association of the village take place. To the east of the village it is worth visiting the cave temple of Agios Antonios, where you can stop by while exploring the beautiful nature of Apokoronas.

Administratively, Tsivaras was mentioned as part of the Municipality of Armeni in 1881 and 1900, the rural municipality of Kalives in 1920 and the community of Kalives after 1925. In 1997 Tsivaras became part of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni, which became a Municipal Unit of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

Chiliomoudou is located at an altitude of 367 meters to the west of the Kiliaris valley, on a hill between the villages of Samonas and Kiriakoselia. It is not known where the name of the settlement came from or when it was founded, but it was not mentioned in the censuses of the Venetian period, so it is estimated that it was built during the Turkish occupation. The village was mentioned in the Egyptian census of 1834 as Khiliomudú, when it was inhabited by 9 Christian families. The main church of the settlement is that of Saints Constantine and Eleni at its northeastern end, next to which is the old school.

Due to its mountainous and fortified location, the village was several times a refuge for rebels. After the battle in Provarma, in May 1841, several rebels fled to Chiliomoudou and the surrounding villages, while shortly after the beginning of the Post-Political Revolution, in October 1895, a group of 40 armed men – among whom was the legendary Papamalekos – wandered through the mountainous Apokoronas and passed through Chiliomoudou.

Since then the village has been “lost” from the historical sources, but fortunately it keeps tradition alive, as here is the only olive press in all of Greece that still works in the traditional way (with mills and pestles), one of the last workshops for making Cretan musical instruments (lutes, violins, mandolins and lyres) and one of the last workshops making sheep and goat bells, known in Cretan as “leria”.

Administratively, Chiliomoudou was listed as part of the Municipality of Fre in 1881 and 1900, the rural municipality of Ramni in 1920, and the community of Ramni after 1925. In 1997 Chiliomoudou became part of the reconstituted Municipality of Armeni, which became a Municipal Unit of the Municipality of Apokoronas in 2010.

Editing & editing of texts: Giorgos Limantzakis

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